Quote [70] : Civilisation – Collective Achievement & Constraint

We acknowledge, then, that a country has a high level of civilisation if we find that in it everything can assist man in his exploitation of the land and protect him against the forces of nature – everything, in short that is of use to him – is attended to and properly ordered. Civilisation Civilisation and its discontents – Sigmund Freud
No feature, however, seems to us to characterise civilisation better than the appreciation and cultivation of the higher mental activities, of intellectual, scientific and artistic achievements, and the leading role accorded to idea in human life. Civilisation Civilisation and its discontents – Sigmund Freud
Communal life becomes possible only when a majority comes together that is stronger than any individual presents a untied front against every individual.  The power of the community then pits itself, in the name of ‘right’, against the power of the individual, which it condemned as ‘brute force’.  The replacement of the power of the individual by that of the community is the decisive step toward civilisation.

Its essence lies in the fact that the member of the community restrict themselves in the scope for satisfaction; whereas the individual knew no such restriction.

Civilisation Civilisation and its discontents – Sigmund Freud
Hence, the next requirement  of civilisation is justice, that us the assurance that the legal order, once established, shall not be violated again in favour of the individual.  This entails no judgement regarding the ethical value of such a system of law.  The subsequent development of civilisation seems to aim at a situation in which the law should no longer express the will of a small community – a caste, a social stratum or a tribe – that in its turn relates like a violent individual to other groups, which may be more comprehensive.  The ultimate outcome should be a system of law to which all – or at least all those who qualify as members of the community – have contributed by partly forgoing the satisfaction of their drives , and which allows no one – again subject to the same qualification 0 to become a victim of brute force. Judiciary (law) – Civilisation
Individual liberty is not an asset of civilisation.  It was greatest before there was any civilisation, though admittedly even then it was largely worthless, because the individual was hardly in a position to defend it.  With the development of civilisation it underwent restrictions, and justice requires than no one shall be spared these restrictions.
  It does not seem as though any influence can induce human beings to change their nature and become like termites; they will probably always defend their claim to individual freedom against the will of the mass.  Much of mankind’s struggle is taken up with the task of finding a suitable, that is to say happy accommodation, between the claims of the individual and the mass claims of civilisation.  One of the problems affecting the fate of mankind is whether such an accommodation can be achieved through particular moulding of civilisation or whether the conflict is irreconcilable. Civilisation Civilisation and its discontents – Sigmund Freud

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